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Guidelines for Numbered Publications

This document outlines the procedures for officially numbered publications (printed or electronic), which are published through UGA Extension and managed by the CAES Office of Communications and Creative Services. These educational materials undergo an initial peer review and are then reviewed by the author every three years to ensure that they are still current.

All CAES, FACS, and Forestry Extension faculty writing and distributing information through the publication office must follow these procedures prior to submitting materials for publication. Newsletters, handouts, and resources that do not have enough educational substance to stand on their own are not eligible to be included in the numbered publication library. For clarification or more information, contact the managing editor for UGA Extension publications. Authors may want to discuss their work with the publications editor before submitting for peer review.

Note: All peer-reviewed numbered publications must be routed through the Extension publications office before being printed, reprinted, or listed on the Intranet or Extension publications website. If you wish to use an outside vendor for design or printing, your publication must first be routed through the Extension publication office in order to receive a number.

UGA Extension numbered publications are made available through the UGA Extension publications website as either an HTML page or printable PDF document (or both).

The following policies and procedures do not pertain to information found on departmental or county web pages, in newsletters, or in alerts. The content of these educational materials is the responsibility of the author(s).

Types of Publications

An official numbered publication is one that has been peer reviewed, has enough substance to stand on its own (even if it is part of a series) and is intended to be distributed directly to the public, or in the case of Agent Resources, for use by county agents. New publications are numbered with the following prefixes: B (for Bulletins), C (for Circulars), AR (for Agent Resources), AP (for Annual Publications), and TP (for Temporary Publications).

Bulletins, Circulars, and Agent Resources must be reviewed by both internal and external reviewers before receiving a publication number. Annual Publications and Temporary Publications must undergo an internal review before receiving a publication number. Depending on the department or unit, the process of acquiring reviews varies. Learn more about peer review requirements.


Bulletins represent a major writing effort and cover a broad subject area, contain several topics and may include additional resources. Bulletins may address different individual topics in a particular discipline or a series of individual discipline subjects for a specific commodity.

Examples: Georgia Forages: Grass Species (B 1351), Native Plants for Georgia Part I: Trees, Shrubs and Woody Vines (B 987), and Get Smart About Identity Theft (B 1435).


Circulars are more narrowly focused than Bulletins. A circular discusses one subject in a limited, stand-alone form and may include references. Many publications formerly designated as leaflets or fact sheets are now circulars.

Examples: Blossom-End Rot and Calcium Nutrition of Pepper and Tomato (C 938), Marriage Matters Series: Staying Together After the Loss of a Child (C 1052-08), and Blister Beetles in Georgia Alfalfa Hay (C 917).

Agent Resources

Agent Resources are peer-reviewed documents and presentations intended for an agent-specific audience. These numbered publications are created to help county Extension agents educate the public and are available on the CAES and Extension File Sharing Intranet page. If you are an Extension agent or specialist and cannot access this page after entering your UGA MyID and password, contact the publications editor.

Examples: Introduction to the Georgia Master Gardener Extension Volunteer Program (AR 1) and Selecting and Growing Succulent Plants (AR 2).

Annual Publications

Annual Publications address a comprehensive issue, and components come from varied disciplines and commodity areas. These publications are generally large handbooks, issue-related materials that are updated annually, or Research and Extension commodity reports.

Examples: 2014-2015 Georgia Small Grain Performance Tests (AP 100-7), 2014 Georgia Cotton Research and Extension Report (AP 108-3), and 2013 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (AP 102-6).

Temporary Publications

This category is only for issue- or event-related information that requires immediate dissemination to the public and may include white papers, county or cluster information sheets, or brief material to be used as handouts for educational programs. Note: Temporary publications will only be available on the Extension publications website for three months, but author(s) may choose to resubmit them as bulletins, circulars, agent resources, or annual publications.

Past examples: Lean Finely Textured Beef is NOT Pink Slime (TP 100) and Managing Algal Blooms and the Potential for Algal Toxins in Pond Water (TP 101).

Non-traditional Formats

In addition to traditional printed publications, publications may be submitted as PowerPoint presentations, computer programs and videos. Although the publication office cannot produce videos or PowerPoints, we will provide editing support and house the file(s) on our website. These formats must follow the same guidelines as bulletins, circulars, or agent resources and must be classified as a bulletin, circular, or agent resource on the publication submission form. The following additional guidelines must also be followed:

Requirements for PowerPoints

  • Must be created so that a user can understand the content without a presenter.
  • The actual PowerPoint is considered to be the manuscript, which is to be internally and externally reviewed.
  • The submission must also include a full script ("notes") or voice-over text that is also reviewed.
  • The last slide in a PowerPoint presentation must include the UGA Extension logo, indicia and EEO text, and the publication number and date, which can be added by the author or the publications editor.

Requirements for Video

  • Although a finished video may be submitted for review, it is highly recommended that prior to beginning production, a storyboard containing both a full script and a description of corresponding video segments is submitted for numbering. The storyboard should include detailed descriptions of visual demonstrations taking place in the video, and it should be reviewed by a video/communications technical expert to ensure that proposed scenes and production plans are appropriate, possible and economical. Please follow the OCCS audio/video production guide when producing/planning a video.
  • Section 508 requirements (1194.24) apply to all video productions. Open or closed captions, audio descriptions, and alternate text presentations are required by law for any multimedia production that supports an agency's mission. To comply with these requirements:
    • The cost of video captioning should be included in grant proposals and the general budget for video production. (OCCS can assist with captioning if the videos are less than 10 minutes in length.)
    • The peer-reviewed text files of the full script and video segment descriptions will be published online.
  • Authors should ensure that people appearing in the video sign a release form that states that they agree to be filmed.
  • The script is considered the manuscript and should be submitted for approval with the numbered publication submission form.
  • DVDs should include the UGA Extension logo, indicia and EEO text, and publication number and date both within the DVD footage and on the DVD label and/or case insert.
  • Videos distributed online should include the UGA Extension logo, indicia and EEO text, and publication number and date both within the video footage and in the video description.

What about mobile applications?

At this time, the Office of Communications and Creative Services cannot provide support for mobile apps. If you are interested in creating an application, contact Brian Watson, director of the Office for Information Technology. If you would like to receive a publication number for a mobile application, please get the content peer reviewed, and submit it with the publication submission form before app creation begins.

Publications for Release

For publications that have been developed at another institution and are to be "released" through the UGA Extension publications website, a UGA Extension contact needs to be named on the publication. The UGA-affiliated contact or releaser will be responsible for obtaining reprint permission from the originating institution and ensuring that the publication has undergone the necessary peer reviews. Released publications will keep the number from the originating institution and include a standard release statement (to be added by the publications editor).

What is not a publication?

Numbered publications are written by University of Georgia Extension faculty and are peer reviewed. They offer research-based information and recommendations that are easy to understand. These publications are edited and distributed by the CAES Office of Communications and Creative Services.

Newsletters, handouts, and resources that do not have enough educational content to stand on their own are not eligible to be included in the numbered publication library.


Peer Review

The author is responsible for working with the department/unit Extension coordinator or department head/director to acquire all peer reviews, both internal and external. An optional Publication Reviewer Report PDF is available for reviewers to record and print their comments. Each department manages the review process separately from the publication office. Family and Consumer Sciences publications undergo a special submission process that will acquire blind reviews for the authors. The minimum requirements for numbering are:

  • All numbered publications must be internally reviewed for accuracy and content by at least two faculty.
    • Reviewers can be from within the author's home department, discipline, or commodity area.
    • If the lead author is county faculty, the internal review should be coordinated through the appropriate department, depending on the subject matter.
  • Bulletins, circulars, and agent resources must be externally reviewed by at least two reviewers
    • Reviewers can be from within the UGA system but external to the originating unit(s) or from outside the UGA system. They can also be from industry or another college/university.
  • After corrections or suggestions have been considered, the publication should be reviewed by at least one county faculty for readability (other than the author in the case that the author is a county agent).



Publications that have been peer reviewed in English may be translated so that they are available to non-English speaking audiences. Common languages include Spanish and Chinese. The Office of Communications and Creative Services cannot provide translation services, but may be able to help you acquire these services.

Translated versions of publications must:

  • Follow the same basic guidelines as numbered publications written in English.
  • Be reviewed by one person fluent in the language in addition to the original translator
    • The primary criterion for this additional reviewer is fluency in the language, not knowledge of the subject matter.
  • To ensure content accuracy of the translation, the author, Extension coordinator, or department head may wish to seek a content reviewer fluent in the language.
    • This is encouraged to ensure that the message being conveyed is not lost in translation.


Publication Submission

The procedures listed below must be followed by the lead author before a publication receives an official Extension publication number and before being included in the Extension publications website. Authors that are Ag and Natural Resources specialists should work with their Extension coordinator or department head/unit director. Ag and Natural Resources agents should work in collaboration with a program specialist. Although it is not necessary that the specialist be listed as an author, they should provide consultation and assist with the submission process. Family and Consumer Sciences authors should follow the procedures specific to their program area. Submissions that do not clearly adhere to publication criteria will be returned to the appropriate department head or program development coordinator and a copy will be sent to the publication advisory committee for further review.

Steps to Submitting a Publication

  1. Before starting, consider the following "ingredients" that create a successful publication:
    • Publications should be scholarly: Numbered publications count as scholarly work, so be sure to use sources and references. Provide information that is educational in addition to recommendations.
    • Publications should be written with the audience in mind: Consider the intended audience's reading level and introduce any jargon. Your writing should be easy to understand and the overall publication should not require an agent to explain how to use it.
    • Publications should have high quality content: Be sure to include photos and drawings, write captions for figures and tables that add value, and use headings/subheadings. The material should be able to stand on its own, and the publication should be written with longevity in mind.
  2. Write your manuscript and assemble any accompanying images.
  3. Be sure to include a list of sources and/or image credits.
  4. Focus on content; don't worry about design.
  5. For references, list as much information as possible (author(s), publication date, title of article, title of journal, volume, issue, page numbers, etc.). The publications editor will format this for you.
  6. Send your manuscript for internal and external peer review as appropriate (procedures vary by department; check with the submitting department's Extension coordinator or department head/unit director for more information). See "Peer Review" for basic review requirements.
  7. Incorporate changes recommended by reviewers.
  8. Complete the following at the same time:
    • Fill out the publication submission form, print it, sign it, and send it (along with your completed manuscript) to the submitting department's Extension coordinator or department head/unit director
      • The department head/unit director will sign the publication submission form and forward it to the appropriate associate dean for Extension (depending on the author's primary appointment).
      • The assistant dean will sign the publication submission form and forward it to the Extension publications editor.
    • Send a copy of your manuscript (in MS Word) and any accompanying images to the publications editor. Include separate files for graphics even if you have placed them within the Word file. Files can be submitted electronically or sent on a CD.
      • Send your files to:
        Erin Yates, Managing Editor
        116 Hoke Smith, Athens, Ga 30602
      • If you plan to work with an outside design or print vendor, or if you plan to submit a video, you will need to alert the publications editor.

What happens after my publication is approved?

Depending on the current workload of the publications editor, the editing and design process may take several weeks once approval is received. In order for timely publishing to occur, it is necessary that authors reply promptly to review/approval requests from the editor.

  • The Extension publications editor will assign the publication a number.
  • Your manuscript will be edited in APA style.
  • Design, including requested illustrations, for both print and the web will be provided free of charge.
    • Note: If you have a specific illustration in mind, it is preferred that you contact the publications editor BEFORE the manuscript undergoes the peer review process
  • You will receive an email with a PDF proof of your publication, so you can review it and make any changes before it is published.
  • Your publication will be published to the Extension publications website.
  • You will be emailed a link to the final publication.
  • You will be contacted every three years to review your publication to ensure it remains up-to-date.

What images or graphics can I use?

  • Photographs you took or photographs a coworker took and has given you permission to use (should be a large file size, not grainy, not blurry).
  • Photographs from Bugwood or the Creative Commons (with proper attribution).
  • Photographs or works in the public domain (i.e., intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable).

You can provide images and graphics as digital photographs, scanned material or as slides. When it's time to revise a publication, consider replacing older images. Note: Many older images and graphics are not on file in the publications office.

Digital Photos

  • Take photos at the highest resolution your camera will allow. Ideally, images submitted for publication will be at least 5x7" and 300 dpi (or equivalent).
  • Remember: You can always make large files smaller. If your photos are too small to start with, they'll turn out fuzzy, grainy and pixilated.

Scanned Images

  • Scan images at 600 dpi and save the graphic as a TIF file.
  • Use the "shades of gray" or "grayscale" setting on your scanner for complicated line drawings, not the "line drawing" or "black and white" setting.
  • Try to avoid scanning a photograph — either color or black-and-white — printed in another publication.
  • If you're scanning a small drawing, set the percent larger than 100 percent before you scan. A graphic will retain detail if its size is reduced within a publication, but the graphic will lose detail if it is enlarged later.

Clip Art:

  • If you want use a drawing from a clip art collection, please send a copy of the original graphic file from the clip art CD.

What if I don't have images or graphics?

Let the editor know what you have in mind. OCCS has access to a database of stock photos. Depending on the scale of the project, we may be able to coordinate photography.

If your drawing skills aren't the best, diagrams can be created in Word or sketched out on paper and scanned; the publication designer can recreate it so it looks professional. Or, you can provide a picture of something that you have in mind that you would like to have illustrated. If you have a specific illustration in mind, it is preferred that you contact the publications editor BEFORE the manuscript undergoes the peer review process.

May I use my own designer?

Yes, but all numbered publications must be routed through the publications editor before being printed, reprinted, listed on the Extension publications website in order to ensure proper branding. If you wish to use an outside vendor for design or printing, a publication submission form must still be approved in order to receive a number.

What about printing?

If you would like to have hard copies of your publication produced, the publications editor can help you coordinate this process. Numbered publications are typically printed through Bulldog Print and Design, but this is not mandatory. We can help with the bid process, packaging of files, and delivery. The author(s) will be responsible for covering the cost of printing and delivery.

What if I want to sell my publication?

The Office of Communication and Creative Services has personnel available to manage publication sales and ship the product to the buyers. The price of the item should be enough to cover the cost of a reprint, shipping and handling, and the credit card processing fee. The author(s) will be responsible for covering the cost of the initial printing. Contact Angela Rowell, director of OCCS, for more information. Credit cards are no longer accepted over the phone or by fax; all credit card purchases must be made online at


The Three-Year Review

Three months before a publication reaches its three-year review date, the primary author will be contacted to determine if the publication should remain in the system for another three years without revision, if it needs minor or major revisions, or if it needs to be archived and removed from public access. If revisions are needed, please mark or track these in the most recent version of the publication.

  • If No Revisions: The publication will be returned to the system with the new "Reviewed" date.
  • If Minor Revisions: The updated publication will be returned to the system with the new "Revised" date.
  • If Major Revisions: The publications must be peer reviewed before being returned to the system.

Publications that are past their three-year review date will be automatically removed from public access until they are reviewed and/or revised.

When an existing publication is revised or updated, its designation as a Bulletin, Circular, Special Bulletin, Miscellaneous Publication, Leaflet, Research Report, or Research Bulletin may be changed to reflect the current publication policies.

If the author is no longer with UGA Extension, another specialist within the department may be asked to maintain the publication.

Videos that require minor revisions but cannot be reproduced will include the "Revised" date on the label and/or case insert, and corrective notes will be included with the packaging before distribution. Videos distributed Online will have the revised date and corrective notes in the video description.

What if I need to update my publication before the three-year review?

Some publications may need updating more often, especially if they contain pesticide recommendations. Any publication can be updated more often than three years if necessary. Major revisions will need to be resubmitted for publication. Contact the publications editor for more information.

What are the differences between major and minor revisions?

A revision is major if it warrants undergoing the peer review process, i.e., if you are adding or rewriting a significant amount of content. If you are rewriting an old numbered publication, it should be resubmitted for publication as a major revision so it can maintain the same number.

Minor revisions include replacing images, updating design, fixing typos/spelling/grammar, deleting out-of-date information (includes replacing old statistics), updating URLs or additional resources, changing contact information, and rewriting text so that it is easier to understand.

Annually produced publications such as the "Georgia Pest Management Handbook" or pesticide application guides for specific crops should be intensively reviewed at the appropriate departmental level and do not need to go through additional reviewers.


Pest Management Recommendations

Because pest management recommendations are often quickly outdated, authors should refer the reader to the "Georgia Pest Management Handbook" in their publications instead of giving a specific recommendation. If pesticide recommendations are provided, the following disclaimer will be added to the publication:

It is important to always read any pesticide label before use. Use the product strictly according to the label directions. It is particularly important to follow all safety precautions. Trade and brand names are used only for information. The University of Georgia does not guarantee nor warrant published standards on any product mentioned; neither does the use of a trade or brand name imply approval of any product to the exclusion of others, which may also be suitable.


Copyright Policy

All numbered publications are copyrighted by UGA Extension for the people of Georgia. UGA Extension retains all rights under all conventions but permits free reproduction by all UGA Extension agents and offices and by the people of Georgia. Permission is granted to others to use this material in part or in full for educational purposes provided full credit is given by citing the publication, its source and authors, and date of publication. For more information, contact the publications editor.


Additional Resources


Revised March 2017